RAMC

Lady Doctors of the Malta Garrison
No 60 Walton Janice Park

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No 60 Dr Janet Park Walton MB ChB (Ed 1914)
9 Sept 1890 – ?

In May 1916, Dr Louisa Aldrich-Blake, Surgeon at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital and Dean of the London School of Medicine for Women, approached all the women on the Medical Register asking them to say if they would be willing to serve with the Royal Army Medical Corps. From the replies received, 48 lady doctors were enrolled. The first 22 medical women embarked for Malta on 2 August 1916; another 16 lady doctors embarked on the Hospital Ship (H.S.) Gloucester Castle on 12 August 1916.

The Director General Army Medical Services, Sir Alfred Keogh, was responsible for employing medical women and for dealing with illnesses among them. Women doctors, also referred to as lady doctors, were classed as civilian surgeons attached to the RAMC. Women serving as full time doctors in the Army and doing precisely the same work as their male colleagues had neither military rank nor status, but received the same pay, rations, travelling allowances and gratuity as temporary commissioned male officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps. A uniform was not introduced until after April 1918. This was similar in appearance to that worn by the Queen Mary's Auxiliary Army Corps (QMAAC) but with an RAMC badge on both lapels.

In October 1916, on hearing from the War Office that fifty more medical women were needed for service with the RAMC in English hospitals, Aldrich-Blake again negotiated with all the women who had qualified in the preceding ten years, and secured the requisite number in a very short time. On 20 October 1916, eleven medical women embarked on H.S. Britannic for Malta.

The casualties from operations in Gallipoli (25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916), and Salonica (October 1915 – 30 September 1918), were initially treated in Malta and Egypt, but in 1917, submarine attacks on hospital ships made it unsafe to evacuate from Salonica and five General Hospitals, Nos 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65, mobilized in Malta for service in Salonica to which the medical women were attached.

Between August 1916 and July 1917, eighty two lady doctors served in war hospitals in Malta. They worked alongside their RAMC colleagues and carried out all but administrative duties. Their assistance was very highly appreciated. Their work was recognized in the King's Birthday Honours list of June 1918 when Dr Barbara Martin Cunningham MB ChB, Military Hospital Mtarfa, Mrs Katharine Rosebery Drinkwater MB BS, in charge of Military Families Staff and Department Malta and Miss May Thorne MD, in charge of Sisters' Hospital and Staff Department Malta, were awarded the Order of the British Empire for services rendered during the war.

Service Record — Janet Park Walton

Dr Janet Park Walton studied medicine at the Medical College for Women Edinburgh, graduating MB ChB in 1914. She held the appointment of Resident Medical Officer of the York Dispensary and was 2nd Resident Medical Officer at the Craiglockhart Poor House, Edinburgh. She was a member of the Edinburgh Women Medical Society. The Medical Directory of 1923 lists her address as No 7 Brunton Terrace, Edinburgh.

Sept 1916 Dr Janet Park Walton was contracted to work for 12 months as a Civilian Surgeon attached to the RAMC. Her salary was 24 shillings a day, including allowances, but excluding duty transport. A gratuity of £60 was awarded at the end of the contract, provided employment had not been terminated for misconduct. Most of the medical women were invited to renew their contracts at the expiry of their first year's work.

10 Sept 1916 Embarked in the Hospital Ship Essequibo as part of the Women's Medical Unit RAMC.

Malta 18 June 1917 Dr J. P. Walton was one of eight women doctors attached to No 64 General Hospital, which was formed in Malta on 28 April 1917. The medical women on the staff were:

  1. Hilda Grace Johnson (Anaesthetist)
  2. Elsie Marian Layman
  3. Margaret Gemmell Ormiston
  4. Elizabeth Mary Edwards (Assistant Pathologist)
  5. Margaret Ann Hendry Stewart (Assistant Surgeon)
  6. Catharine Laura Boyd
  7. Violet Mabel Deale
  8. Janet Park Walton
Dr Edwards
Capt M Douglas, Dr E M Edwards, Capt H G R Jamieson, Capt Henry Carson Smyth at Spinola Hospital Malta. (Lt (QM) James Cotter's papers - courtesy AMS Archives)

The hospital staff, consisting of 10 officers and 250 other ranks, marched to All Saints Convalescent Camp to await their passage. On 3 June 1917, Lt Col T. E. Fielding DSO RAMC o/c 64 GH, Captain Oscar M. De Jong, Capt M. Douglas, Capt R. A. P. Hill, Capt H. G. R. Jamieson, Lt T. M. Thomson and Lt (QM) J. Cotter with 206 soldiers embarked on HMT Abbassieh. The remaining medical officers, women doctors, female nursing staff, and all the equipment, were left in Malta due to lack of space on the transport.

The men arrived at Suda Bay, Crete on 6 June and at Salonica on 9 June 1917. Lt (QM) James Cotter and all personnel marched to the site of the camp which was to be occupied by No 63 General Hospital, at Kilo 9 Seres Road. The remaining officers reported to No 1 Base Depot Summerhill. Their hospital equipment did not reach Salonica until 12 July, when a quantity of medical and ordnance stores was found to be missing. On 19 June, Captains A. M. Cato, A. Cowes, A. Dennison, H. M. Green and W. D. Cruickshank joined the hospital.

Staff Spinola
1. Oscar M DeJong, 2. Henry Carson Smyth, 3. H G R Jamieson, 4. James Cotter 5. Hilda G Johnson, 6. McShane, 7. MacCormick.
(M A H Stewart Collection - supplied by her grandchildren)
64 GH Salonica
Aerial view 64 GH Salonica
(Cotter collection AMS archives)

18 Jun 1917 – 11 Mar 1918 No 64 General Hospital was set up at Akbunar hills, north of Salonica. It was equipped with 10 beds for officers and 250 beds for the Other Ranks. It became operational on 21 July 1917. The women doctors, who had been accommodated on H.S. Llandovery Castle, since their disembarkation at Salonica, reported for duty on 2 July.

1 Oct 1917 The nominal roll of the staff of 64 GH (excluding women doctors) was:

  • Medical Officers and QM
    • o/c: Lt Col T. E. Fielding
    • o/ic Surgical Division: Capt Gauntlett E. G.
    • Pathologist: Capt Douglas M.
    • Ward officer: Capt Fowler T. H.
    • Ward officer: Capt Cato A. M.
    • Ophthalmologist: Capt Cowes A.
    • o/ic Medical Division: Capt Hill R. A. P.
    • Radiographer and Dermatologist: Capt Smyth Henry Carson.
    • Sanitary Officer: Capt Dennison A.
    • Registrar: Capt Cruickshank W. D.
    • Assistant Pathologist: Capt Jamieson H. G. R.
    • Ward officer: Capt Sparrow E. C.
    • Ward officer: Capt Cleland A.
    • Ward officer: Lt Thomson T. M.
    • Ward officer: Lt West H. O.
    • Ward officer: Lt Garland G.
    • Lt (QM) Wilmshurst W. J.
    • Lt (QM) Cotter J.
  • Chaplains 4th Class
    • MacCormick J. A. (Presbyterian)
    • MacManaway J. J. (C. of E.)
    • Lavery J. (R.C.)

18 June 1917 – 13 Mar 1918 Served at Salonica. While with the RAMC in Malta and Salonica met Dr Henry Carson Smyth whom she married, and who assisted him greatly in his work, especially in his final years of failing health. Dr H C Smyth made a special study of venereal disease and dermatology. Some of his work is displayed in two papers on the use of salvarsan. He died in London on 8 August 1944.

12 Dec 1917 Closure of No 64 General Hospital. Six medical women, (H. G. Johnson, E. M. Edwards, M. D. Murray, M. G. Ormiston, E. M. Layman and E. S. Walker), were posted to No 49 Stationary Hospital; Doctor J. P. Walton was posted to No 41 General Hospital. Drs E. T. Gilchrist, M. D. Murray and E. S. Walker had joined from No 62 General Hospital on 4 November 1917.

13 Mar 1918 Contract expired.

In 1918, she settled down with her husband in general practice in Coldharbour Lane, London, where Dr Henry Carson Smythe practised for twenty-six years.

References

  1. No 60 Army Book 82. Record of Special Reserve Officer's Service (Records of 132 Lady Doctors).
  2. Obituary, Louisa Aldrich-Blake. Br Med J (1926); 1: 69 (Published 9 January 1926).
  3. Macpherson W. G., 1921. History of The Great War, Medical Services General History, Vol I, Chap XIII, The Medical Services in the Mediterranean Garrison pp. 235-248. HMSO London.
  4. Leneman L., Medical women in the First World War - ranking nowhere. Br Med J (1993); 10: 1592 (Published 18 December 1993).
  5. Leneman L., Medical Women at war 1914-1918. Medical History 1994, 38: 160-177.
  6. Fairfield L., Medical Women in the Forces. Part I Women Doctors in the British Forces 1914 - 1918 War. Journal of the Medical Women Federation 49. 1967; p 99.
  7. Mitchell A. M., Medical Women and the Medical services of the First World War.
  8. SA/MWF/CI 59. Medical Women Federation, (Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine). Status of medical women under the War Office.
  9. Women doctors. Hansard House of Commons Debate 2 July 1918; 107: cc1555–6.
  10. Reports of Societies. Womens' service in Malta with the RAMC. Br Med J (1919); 2 : 634, (Published 15 November 1919).
  11. The Medical Directory 1923, 79th Issue. London J. & A. Churchill.
  12. Obituary Dr Henry Carson Smyth. Br Med J (1944); 2: 419, (Published 23 September 1944).