On 12 June 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte expelled the Order of St John of Jerusalem that had ruled Malta since 1530.
On 2 Sept 1798, the Maltese rose against their oppressors, who withdrew behind the fortifications around the harbours.
On 4 Sept 1800, the insurgents with the aid of British troops, forced the French to
From 1800 to 1813, Malta was administered as a British Protectorate. Capt Alexander Ball RN took initial charge of the civil administration, although the ultimate authority lay in the hands of the GOC Maj Gen Henry Pigot.
The Egyptian Campaign, under Admiral Lord Keith and General Sir Ralph Abercrombie assembled in Malta on 20 Nov 1800.
It left Malta on 20 Dec 1800 for Marmorice Bay, where the troops were landed and exercised before embarking for Aboukir in Mar 1801. Five hundred Maltese Pioneers under Lt Rivarola and a number of Maltese Artificers served in the Egyptian Campaign. The Pioneers were enlisted for nine months, extendable to a year.
The Principal Medical Officer of the expedition was Inspector of Hospitals James Franck, who in 1801, was replaced by Inspector of Hospitals Thomas Young. The regiments assembled for Egypt were:
- Maj-Gen Ludlow – Gds Bde (1338 men)
- 1st/Coldstream Gds
- 1st/3rd Foot (939 men)
- Maj-Gen Coote – 1st Bde (2586 men)
- 2nd/Royals (705 men)
- 1st/54th (598 men)
- 2nd/54th (597 men)
- 92nd (686 men)
- Maj-Gen Craddock – 2nd Bde (2497 men)
- 8th (490 men)
- 13th (737 men)
- 18th (495 men)
- 90th (775 men)
- Maj-Gen Earl Cavan – 3rd Bde (1970 men)
- 50th (529 men)
- 79th (741 men)
- Marines of the Fleet (700 men)
- Brig-Gen Doyle – 4th Bde (1681 men)
- Queen's (557 men)
- 30th (432 men)
- 44th (290 men)
- 89th (402 men)
- Brig-Gen Stuart – 5th Bde (2067 men)
- Minorca (967 men)
- De Roll's (543 men)
- Dillon's (557 men)
- Brig-Gen Finch Cavalry Bde (1000 men)
- 12th Light Dragoons (500 men)
- 26th Regt Dragoons (500 men)
- Maj-Gen Moore (3283 men) and
Brig-Gen Oakes (Reserve)
- 11th Light Dragoons (52 men)
- Hompesch Light Dragoons (141 men)
- 23rd (558 men)
- 28th (630 men)
- 40th Flank Coys (240 men)
- 42nd (943 men)
- 58th (511 men)
- Corsican Rangers (208 men)
- Brig-Gen Lawson – Royal Artillery (477 men)
- Col Mants Staff Corps (90 men)
- 800 Maltese Pioneers
The University of Malta, which had been suppressed by the French, was reconstituted in November 1800. The first degrees in Medicine were granted in August 1804. Eleven students qualified between 1804 and 1812.
In Feb 1800, Brig Gen Thomas Graham, in command of the troops in Malta, opened a General Hospital in Zejtun to treat the large number of fever patients. The staff of the Zejtun Hospital on 1 Sept 1800, was:
1. Assistant Inspector of Hospitals Alexander Jamieson Esq.
2. Surgeon to the Forces Edward Tegart Esq.
3. Deputy Purveyor Joseph Gunson Esq.
4. Acting Apothecary to the Forces Hospital Mate W. May
5. Hospital Mate Mr Norman.
6. Hospital Mate Mr Anderson.
7. Hospital Mate Mr Stalker.