RAMC

Lady Doctors of the Malta Garrison
No 78 Murphy Lillie Josephine

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No 78 Dr Lillie Josephine Murphy MB BCh BAO (NUI 1915)
14 Feb 1891 [Cork] – 3 Mar 1958

In May 1916, Dr Louisa Aldrich-Blake, Surgeon at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital and Dean of the London School of Medicine for Women, approached all the women on the Medical Register asking them to say if they would be willing to serve with the Royal Army Medical Corps. From the replies received, 48 lady doctors were enrolled. The first 22 medical women embarked for Malta on 2 August 1916; another 16 lady doctors embarked on the Hospital Ship (H.S.) Gloucester Castle on 12 August 1916.

The Director General Army Medical Services, Sir Alfred Keogh, was responsible for employing medical women and for dealing with illnesses among them. Women doctors, also referred to as lady doctors, were classed as civilian surgeons attached to the RAMC. Women serving as full time doctors in the Army and doing precisely the same work as their male colleagues had neither military rank nor status, but received the same pay, rations, travelling allowances and gratuity as temporary commissioned male officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps. A uniform was not introduced until after April 1918. This was similar in appearance to that worn by the Queen Mary's Auxiliary Army Corps (QMAAC) but with an RAMC badge on both lapels.

In October 1916, on hearing from the War Office that fifty more medical women were needed for service with the RAMC in English hospitals, Aldrich-Blake again negotiated with all the women who had qualified in the preceding ten years, and secured the requisite number in a very short time. On 20 October 1916, eleven medical women embarked on H.S. Britannic for Malta.

The casualties from operations in Gallipoli (25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916), and Salonica (October 1915 – 30 September 1918), were initially treated in Malta and Egypt, but in 1917, submarine attacks on hospital ships made it unsafe to evacuate from Salonica and five General Hospitals, Nos 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65, mobilized in Malta for service in Salonica to which the medical women were attached.

Between August 1916 and July 1917, eighty two lady doctors served in war hospitals in Malta. They worked alongside their RAMC colleagues and carried out all but administrative duties. Their assistance was very highly appreciated. Their work was recognized in the King's Birthday Honours list of June 1918 when Dr Barbara Martin Cunningham MB ChB, Military Hospital Mtarfa, Mrs Katharine Rosebery Drinkwater MB BS, in charge of Military Families Staff and Department Malta and Miss May Thorne MD, in charge of Sisters' Hospital and Staff Department Malta, were awarded the Order of the British Empire for services rendered during the war.

Service Record — Lillie Josephine Murphy

Dr Lillie Josephine Murphy was born in Cork, where her father was a barrister. She studied Medicine at the National University of Ireland. She graduated MB BCh in 1915. Her brother and two sisters also studied medicine at the National University of Ireland. After qualifying, she became an Assistant Medical Officer at Westcliff-on-Sea for twelve months, and then moved to Southampton. The Medical Directory of 1917 list hers address as Castle View House, Macroom Co. Cork. Dr Lillie Josephine Murphy was the sister of Dr Mary Agnes Beausang Murphy who also served in Malta.

1 Nov 1916 Contracted to work for 12 months as a Civilian Surgeon attached to the RAMC. Her salary was 24 shillings a day, including allowances, but excluding duty transport. A gratuity of £60 was awarded at the end of the contract, provided employment had not been terminated for misconduct. The majority of the medical women were invited to renew their contracts at the expiry of their first year's work.

Malta 18 Nov 1916 Embarked for Malta as part of the Women's Medical Unit RAMC.

Malta 29 June 1917 Attached to St David's Hospital which mobilized as No 62 General Hospital for duty with the British Salonica Force. Miss D. M. Alban QAIMNS was matron of the hospital.

2 July 1917 Dr L. J. Murphy embarked at the Custom House Valletta on HMT ship Abbassieh with the staff of No 62 General Hospital. The medical officers and medical women embarking on the transport were:

  1. Major Charles Henry Carr o/ic
  2. Captain B H Leigh
  3. Captain E G B Starkie
  4. Captain D Glen
  5. Captain W C Gore
  6. Captain R J Morgan
  7. Lt (QM) J W Piercy
  8. Edith Blake Hollway
  9. Mary Josephine Ahern
  10. Annie Grange Fergus
  11. Mary Dorothea Murray
  12. Elizabeth Stevenson Walker
  13. Rose Lillian Humphrey Davy
  14. Elizabeth Taylor Gilchrist
  15. Lillie Josephine Murphy

4 July 1917 HMT ship Abbassieh sailed out of the Grand Harbour. She was escorted by HMS Aster and HMS Azalea. HMS Aster struck a mine and sunk eleven miles off Malta with the loss of ten lives. HMS Azalea also struck a mine as she went to the aid of the stricken ship. The transports returned to Malta and anchored in Marsaxlokk Harbour.

6 July 1917 HMT Ship Abbassieh sailed out of Marsaxlokk Harbour. She arrived at Suda Bay Crete on 9 July and in Salonica, (Thessalonika) Harbour, on 11 July. The medical women were transferred to the H.S. Llandovery Castle, while the men marched to Karaissi Rest Camp. No 62 General Hospital was erected in Uchantar Convalescent Camp to the east of No 61 General Hospital. The site was about 12 km from Salonica and a mile east of the Monastir road.

21 July 1917 Eight medical women who had been transferred to H.S. Llandovery Castle reported for duty.

28 Aug 1917 Dr Mary Josephine Ahern and Dr Lillie Josephine Murphy were assigned for duty at Karaissi Refugee Camp. They returned to No 62 General hospital on 21 October.

6 Nov 1917 Closure of No 62 General Hospital. The medical women were transferred to other hospitals.
No 62 General Hospital left Salonica for Taranto, Italy.

8 May 1919 Soon after demobilization in 1919 she joined the Colonial Medical Service and went to Malaya, where she married George Bentinck MC, a Mines Department Inspector Federated Malay States Ipoh and Meru Tin Ltd, Ipoh. In 1940, George Bentinck became a captain in the 2nd Federated Malay States Volunteer Force (2FMSVF).

Dr Lillie Josephine Bentinck nee Murphy was medical officer to the Women's Hospital Kuala Kangsar, Perak, and to the Infant Welfare Centre at Ipoh. This was the capital city of the state of Perak, which prospered during the tin mining industry.

(Note: Another women doctor Sarah O'Flynn was also in Malaya. O'Flynn is said to have been the first women doctor in that country. In 1921, Sarah O'Flynn married Sir Richard Olaf Winstedt, a scholar and colonial administrator.)

Feb 1942 When Ipoh was invaded by the Japanese on 15 December 1941, Dr Bentinck and her husband were evacuated to Sumatra. They arrived at Tjilitjap, Java on 26 February 1942, from where they travelled on to Freemantle. She settled in London, taking up locum medical appointments for her colleagues.

3 Mar 1958 Dr Lillie Josephine Bentinck, nee Murphy, of Thurloe Square, London, died suddenly and peacefully at her sister's home. She was survived by her husband and daughter.

References

  1. No 78 Army Book No 82. Record of Special Reserve Officer's Service (Records of 132 Lady Doctors).
  2. Obituary, Louisa Aldrich-Blake. Br Med J (1926); 1: 69 (Published 9 January 1926).
  3. Macpherson W. G., 1921. History of The Great War, Medical Services General History, Vol I, Chap XIII, The Medical Services in the Mediterranean Garrison pp. 235-248. HMSO London.
  4. Leneman L., Medical women in the First World War - ranking nowhere. Br Med J (1993); 10: 1592 (Published 18 December 1993).
  5. Leneman L., Medical Women at war 1914-1918. Medical History 1994, 38: 160-177.
  6. Fairfield L., Medical Women in the Forces. Part I Women Doctors in the British Forces 1914 - 1918 War. Journal of the Medical Women Federation 49. 1967; p 99.
  7. Mitchell A. M., Medical Women and the Medical services of the First World War.
  8. SA/MWF/CI 59. Medical Women Federation, (Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine). Status of medical women under the War Office.
  9. Women doctors. Hansard House of Commons Debate 2 July 1918; 107: cc1555–6.
  10. Reports of Societies. Womens' service in Malta with the RAMC. BMJ (1919); 2 : 634, (Published 15 November 1919).
  11. The Medical Directory 1917, 73rd Issue. London J. & A. Churchill.
  12. TNA:WO 95/4257, (November 1917 – May 1919). War Diaries No 62 General Hospital.
  13. TNA:WO 95/4936, (May – Oct 1917). War Diaries No 62 General Hospital.
  14. TNA:WO 95/4936, (June 1917 – January 1919). War Diaries No 64 General Hospital.
  15. Mann A. J., 1920 The Salonika Front A. and C. Black Ltd London.
  16. 2Obituary Br Med J (1958), 1; 5076: 946 (19 April 1958).